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Macrovascular Complications- Does This Affect Diabetes Patients?



Macrovascular Complications

Diabetes is a common health problem around the world that is associated with cardiovascular disease. Hyperglycemia is the main reason that a person with diabetes is being pushed towards coronary heart-related diseases. Most of the death cases of cardiovascular diseases are recorded through diabetes complications. These complications are classified as microvascular complications and macrovascular complications.

Macrovascular Complications

Macrovascular complications are terms associated with the diabetes condition that occurs due to damage in large blood vessels. The damage is meant to occur when the blood sugar level is on a surge. Macrovascular complications include cardiovascular conditions like cardiac arrest, heart failure, stroke, numbness due to low blood supply to legs.  But these complications can be snubbed through a proper diet, quality sleep, exercise, and keeping away from a stressful life. A scientific study proves that through a random sampling it was clear that having a better rate of metabolism will slow down the complications caused by Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes.

Macrovascular Complications

Complications caused by Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes

Let’s discuss some of the macrovascular complications that affect a person who has Type 1 diabetes or Type 2 Diabetes.


This condition is a coronary artery disease that occurs when the blood vessel walls become thick and inelastic due to plaque caused by fat built up towards blockage. These cholesterol creating substances settle around the artery walls making it more difficult for the transportation of oxygen and other nutrients from the heart to the arteries, veins, and all other parts of the body. This also lowers that amount of blood flow to the organs and tissues of the body. In some cases, it restricts the transportation of blood to the legs or hands, making it numb.

When it comes to a healthy state, the arteries are supposed to show more flexibility and when it turns out to be hardened over time, it is called hardening of the arteries. The atherosclerosis complication is a treatable and preventable macrovascular condition that affects anywhere in the body, causing blood clots to clot through plaque burst. A higher level of Cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure creates a room for the complication to begin and worsen later. Smokers, obese and diabetic people are worst affected over time.

Peripheral Artery Disease-PAD

In this condition, there is a narrowing of the blood vessels that leads to a reduced flow of blood to the legs. This condition shows you that the artery walls are thickened by fat that could lead to consequences of atherosclerosis. There will be a reduced flow of blood to the legs and other organs that will have an impact on the overall functioning gradually. Cramps, numbness, discoloration, slow hair growth erectile dysfunction, or any similar symptoms affecting the leg are the signs of understanding peripheral artery disease.

Coronary artery disease

When the primary blood vessels that supply blood to the heart are weakened towards any damage, this condition called coronary artery disease. The disease will succumb to complications if there is no proper taken. Inflammations and plaque deposits on the coronary arteries lead to the disease. This plaque decreases blood flow to the heart and it could give rise to angina or pain in the chest and also cause shortness of breath. A complete blockage can put you under the risk of a heart attack. Pressure in your chest, shoulder or arm discomfort, sweating, and shortness of breath are the basic signs of a heart attack. Taking safer steps can put you out form the risk of this disease. People use portable best blood glucose meter called glucometer to check their blood sugar levels. These work by testing a small amount of blood, usually with a fingertip. To use the best blood sugar monitor, first, insert a test strip into the device. Then use a special needle to prick a clean fingertip and get a drop of blood. Gently touch the blood with the test strip and wait for a blood glucose reading to appear on the screen.

Heart attack

Carotid artery disease

Blood vessels are the carriers of blood and oxygen to the brain, heart, and other parts of the body. When the blood vessels that carry blood to the brain and the carotid arteries deal with any clogs of fat deposits on the banks of the blood vessels, then you are at a higher risk of Carotid artery disease. Thus, the blood supply to the brain and arteries in the head is blocked from a regular blood supply. This disease develops slowly and the condition can lead to stroke if there is a reduced flow of blood, plaques rupturing, and blockage through blood clots.

Transient Ischemic Attack(Stroke)

In this condition, there will be a temporary shutdown or slowdown of blood flow to the brain that will result in a stroke or TIA condition. The condition will be unnoticed and comes when things are going out of your control. Some of the signs that you are about to be attacked by the stroke condition include numbness on the face that is one-sided, trouble speaking and understanding, unexpected blurred vision, uninvited and extreme headache, and dizziness. 

Cerebral arteriosclerosis

Cerebral arteriosclerosis occurs due to the thickening of cerebral arteries. It becomes, stiff and narrowed because of the plaque around the artery walls blocking the blood flow. If the plaque is severely thickened, the condition will block blood and oxygen flow that could lift the chances of having a stroke. This might put you in a permanently disabled condition causing damages to the brain and complete body malfunctioning.


This is a cerebral condition that causes the weakening of arteries forcing the blood vessels to be gigantically shaped. Aneurysms are asymptomatic mostly and can cause leakage or rupture in the head that could put you under severe headache, risks you through the stroke, or even cause death. Consulting the doctor at the earliest is recommended when you spot a minor leakage of blood. This can prevent a major complication of stroke or sudden death.

Chronic kidney disease

This happens when you have damaged anyone or both kidneys. If the cause is severe, you might be on the edge of dealing with kidney failure or end-stage renal disease. Such times, you will have to do regular dialysis or kidney transplantation to live further. Diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, etc are the common causes of kidney problems.

Chronic Kidney Diseases

Overcoming the situation

Treating macrovascular conditions depend upon how careful and preventive you are about the condition. Smoking is one of the biggest causes of such diseases. Smoking helps to thicken the walls of blood vessels and also invites diabetes to your life. Quit for a few years and the risk of getting stroke will go head to head with that of a non-smoker’s.  This implies that there will be no risk at all. Overweight or obesity is going to put you at a high risk of diabetes and other cardiovascular diseases.

So make an attempt to keep your weight under control. For that, start doing exercises that will help you burn fat immensely. This will help your cholesterol levels to go down. You will reduce the risk of having and macrovascular complications. Limit the amount of saturated fat, limiting the amount of salt used in preparing foods, eating fruits and vegetables that do not increase the blood sugar level, controlling diabetes condition, and limiting or avoiding alcohol will keep you out of risk from any macrovascular diseases. The best thing to solve your symptoms is by rushing to the doctor at the earliest if you notice anything unusual.

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